According to the Hebrew Bible, the First Temple, known in Hebrew as Beit Hamikdash Harishon, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem, built by King Solomon and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE.

The Second Temple, known in Hebrew as Beit Hamikdash Hasheni, stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem between 516 BCE and 70 CE, when it was destroyed by the Roman legions under Titus.

Jewish eschatology includes a belief that the Second Temple will be replaced by a future Third Temple.

The Third Temple, known in Hebrew as Beit Hamikdash Hashlishi, refers to a number of viewpoints, expectations and projects regarding the building of a third temple in Jerusalem. Anticipation for the completion of this construction project is an important part of Jewish theology.

Many prayers in the Jewish religion include the longing for the return and rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, on the same site where the First and Second Temples had once stood, mainly the Amida prayer, which is recited three times a day. This notion of and desire for a Third Temple is sacred in Judaism. The prophets refer to the Third Temple which will be built in the Messianic age.

The rebuilding of the Third Temple is also significant in some interpretations of Christian eschatology.

וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית ה' בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל הַגּוֹיִם. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל הַר ה' אֶל בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב, וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו, כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר ה' מִירוּשָׁלִָם. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים, וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת, לֹא יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה
(ישעיהו, ב':ב')

And it shall come to pass in the end of days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established as the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall go and say: 'Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths. For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge between the nations, and shall decide for many people; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.
(Isaiah, 2:2)

Architectural plans for the third Temple exist most notably in Chapters 40–47 of the Book of Ezekiel and a number of Jewish scholars have stated that the deadline for the arrival of the Jewish Messiah is the Jewish Year 6000 (2240 CE).